Put the chicken into a large stockpot. Add water to cover. Take the chicken out again and bring the water to a boil. Add the chicken back in. (Sorry, seems redundant, but it's an easy way to boil the right amount of water.)
When the chickeny water has come back to a boil again, turn the heat down to a simmer and let the chicken simmer for 5 minutes. Skim the grey foam off and discard. Bob the chicken up and down and around a bit to get all the foam to rise up.
Add all the ingredients listed down to and including black peppercorns. Let all come to a soft simmer, lean a lid halfway over the pot. Let simmer for about an hour, no more than that, but maybe a little less long, if you are in a hurry.
In the meantime get, prepare or make the ingredients left on the list. (I have posted recipes for the fried garlic and pickled jalapenos separately.)
When the chicken has simmered sufficiently, carefully take it out of the stockpot. Let it rest for a while.
Strain the broth through a sieve or cloth into a different pot. Add the sherry to the broth. Taste and add salt to your liking. Keep the pot on a low flame, if serving right away, or put away in the refrigerator, once cooled down until later.
Carve or shred the chicken, keeping or tossing the skin, depending on your liking or health. Arrange the chicken pieces nicely on a plate.
To serve, boil a good amount of water in a medium large pot. Also, have the broth hot on the stove on a low flame. Arrange all the ingredients close by. Let the guests boil their own noodles (or do it for them) and add chicken, vegetables and condiments to their/your liking.
The ingredients list might look daunting, but most condiments already exist as is, or are easily made.